View definitions of terms used throughout the Pathways Clearinghouse.
Education that help individuals make informed decisions about their financial resources, such as providing information on budgeting or loans.
Bonuses that clients receive for engaging in a specific activity or achieving a certain goal.
A finding summarizes the effect of an intervention on an outcome measure related to employment, earnings, public benefit receipt, education, or training. It is the smallest element we review and to which we give a study quality by finding rating. The direction of the finding might be favorable or unfavorable. We also categorize whether it is statistically significant (unlikely to have occurred by chance) and small or moderate-to-large.
- Favorable. An impact on an outcome or an overall outcome domain in a direction that is socially desirable. For example, a favorable impact could be an increase in annual earnings or consecutive months of employment, or a reduction in months of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) eligibility.
- Unfavorable. An impact on an outcome or an overall outcome domain in a direction that is not socially desirable. For example, an unfavorable impact could be a decrease in annual earnings or consecutive months of employment, or an increase in months of TANF eligibility.
- Moderate-to-large. We describe findings as being moderate-to-large if the intervention produced a sufficiently large change in the outcome. The change can be in a favorable or unfavorable direction. An impact receives this designation if the standardized effect size is equal to or greater than 0.25 or equal to or less than -0.25.
- Small. We describe findings as being small if the intervention did not produce a large change in the outcome. The change can be in a favorable or unfavorable direction. An impact receives this designation if the standardized effect size is between -0.25 and 0.25.