The Pathways Clearinghouse defines interventions based on the services offered to the intervention group but not offered to the comparison group.

Case management

Meeting, typically one-on-one, with an employment specialist or counselor who helps assess needs and refers clients to other available services. Case management can take place before or during employment and could focus on employment or on mental health or substance abuse.


Services to support educational attainment, such as GED support, adult basic education, or post-secondary education.

Employment retention services

Supplementary services provided when a client already has a job. These could include ongoing case management to address barriers or to assess progress toward career goals.

Financial incentives

Bonuses that clients receive for engaging in a specific activity or achieving a certain goal.

Health services

Services to support the mental or physical health of clients.

Substance use disorder treatment and mental health services

Services to treat clients for substance use disorder or mental health diagnoses.

Physical health services

Services to address clients’ physical health concerns.


Reductions in payment for failing to comply with mandated services.

Supportive services

Money or vouchers to fund child care, transportation (such as gas cards or tokens), or other supports to help clients search for work or engage in a training program.


Any training program.

Financial education

Education that help individuals make informed decisions about their financial resources, such as providing information on budgeting or loans.

Occupational or sectoral training

Training that is tied to a particular occupation, such as truck driving or welding, or to a sector such as health care or manufacturing.

Soft skills training

Training in so-called soft skills, such as punctuality, manners, professional dress, interactions with colleagues, or conflict management. Sometimes also called life skills training.

Work experience and work-based training

Any paid or unpaid work experience or training that occurs in a work setting.


An organized or structured form of learning on the job, typically in a skilled trade, but typically not subsidized.

On-the-job training

An agreement between the workforce system and an employer in which the workforce system pays all or part of the wages for a client working for an approved employer in an approved occupation for a specified period. At the end of that time, the employer can hire the worker but without the wage subsidy.

Subsidized employment

Employment that is partially or fully paid for by an external funder (not the employer).

Transitional jobs

Jobs that are meant to integrate those who have been out of the workforce (for example, people who were formerly incarcerated) into the community. They can be paid or unpaid.

Unpaid work experience

Work experience that is voluntary or unpaid, such as an unpaid internship.

Work experience

Paid or unpaid (such as internships) work experience.

Work readiness activities

Services designed to help job seekers find a job that are not related to education or training. These can include initial assessments to identify employment barriers, formalized assessments to identify skills and interests, help designing a resume and cover letter, job search assistance, or help developing an individual employment plan.

Employment coaching

Intensive, collaborative assistance with identifying and addressing employment barriers and goals.

Job development or job placement

Assistance getting placed in a job. Typically, a client visits a career center and meets with a counselor who works with employers to identify or create a specific opening for the client.

Job search assistance

Assistance identifying potential jobs and preparing resumes and cover letters.