The PESD program provided additional case management services and support for employment expenses to newly employed Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) recipients to promote job retention and reemployment.

The PESD program provided additional case management services and support for employment expenses to newly employed Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) recipients to promote job retention and reemployment.

The PESD program was one of the demonstration projects made possible by Section 1115 waivers to the rules in effect at the time for the AFDC program. These Section 1115 waivers allowed states to test new approaches to advance the objectives of the AFDC program.

PESD case managers provided participants with counseling and support, job search assistance, assistance in resolving benefits issues, and service referrals tailored to the needs of the participant. The program also increased the amount of financial support available to participants for initial employment expenses and expanded the range of eligible expenses. The program expected staff to maintain contact with all participants during the first few months after they became employed and expected that the need for contact would then decline. Case managers still had contact with about half of the participants one year after they became employed.

Eligible participants were AFDC recipients who were recently employed, with the majority of participants finding work through the Job Opportunities and Basic Skills Training (JOBS) program.

The PESD was implemented in four cities: Chicago, IL; Portland, OR; Riverside, CA; and San Antonio, TX. In Portland, JOBS case managers continued providing some counseling to their clients after their clients became employed. In Riverside, all participants were required to participate in JOBS to receive AFDC benefits.

Year evaluation began: 1994
Populations and employment barriers: Employed, Cash assistance recipients
Intervention services: Case management, Employment retention services, Supportive services, Work readiness activities, Job search assistance, Job development/job placement
Setting(s): Urban only

Effectiveness Rating and Effect By Outcome Domain

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Outcome domain Term Effectiveness rating Effect in 2018 dollars and percentages Effect in standard deviations Sample size
Increase earnings Short-term Not supported favorable $565 per year 0.03 4598
Long-term Not supported favorable $251 per year 0.01 4603
Very long-term No evidence to assess support
Increase employment Short-term Not supported favorable 2% (in percentage points) 0.04 4566
Long-term Not supported favorable 1% (in percentage points) 0.02 4603
Very long-term No evidence to assess support
Decrease benefit receipt Short-term Mixed support favorable $-102 per year -0.04 4621
Long-term Not supported favorable $-50 per year -0.02 4620
Very long-term No evidence to assess support
Increase education and training All measurement periods No evidence to assess support

Studies of this Intervention

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Study Quality Rating Study Counts per Rating
High High 4