Under CE, military veterans who found unsubsidized jobs in the competitive market received standard U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) services.
CE participants were military veterans who found unsubsidized jobs in the competitive market on their own. They received the standard VA services, including VA health care, education benefits, home loan assistance, disability compensation, and vocational rehabilitation and employment assistance, but no specific employment-focused intervention. Veterans could receive the standard services indefinitely. This study was part of the Therapeutic Employment Placement and Support (TEPS) demonstration, which also evaluated an implementation of the Individual Placement and Support model, the Transitional Work Experience (TWE) program, and TWE followed by CE.