GAIN provided a series of education, training, and work readiness activities tailored to participants’ education and skill levels to help recipients of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) increase their employment and earnings. 

Greater Avenues for Independence (GAIN) is currently offering some services remotely in response to COVID-19
Greater Avenues for Independence (GAIN) is currently offering some services remotely in response to COVID-19

GAIN provided a series of education, training, and work readiness activities tailored to participants’ education and skill levels to help recipients of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) increase their employment and earnings. 

For participants with low educational attainment or low math, reading, or English language skills at program entry, GAIN began with adult education. For all other GAIN participants, the program began with job search assistance, including job clubs, supervised job searches, and connections to local employers with the assistance of a job developer. Participants who did not obtain employment after these activities underwent formal assessments of their career goals and skills, developed an employment plan, and could engage in a variety of work, education, and training activities, including vocational or on-the-job training, unpaid work experience, supported work, and postsecondary education. Clients continued in GAIN until they found employment, left GAIN, or became exempt from the program for other reasons. GAIN participants were AFDC recipients in California. The GAIN evaluation occurred in six California counties: Alameda, Butte, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Diego, and Tulare.

Year evaluation began: 1987
Populations and employment barriers: Parents, Long-term cash assistance recipients
Intervention services: Case management, Education, Supportive services, Training, Occupational or sectoral training, On-the-job training, Subsidized employment, Work experience, Work readiness activities, Job development/job placement
Setting(s): Urban only

Effectiveness Rating and Effect By Outcome Domain

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Outcome domain Term Effectiveness rating Effect in 2018 dollars and percentages Effect in standard deviations Sample size
Increase earnings Short-term Supported favorable $1,318 per year 0.06 32933
Long-term Supported favorable $1,673 per year 0.08 32933
Very long-term Little evidence to assess support favorable $879 per year 0.04 8219
Increase employment Short-term Supported favorable 4% (in percentage points) 0.10 32933
Long-term Supported favorable 3% (in percentage points) 0.07 32933
Very long-term Little evidence to assess support 0
Decrease benefit receipt Short-term Supported favorable $-176 per year -0.06 32933
Long-term Supported favorable $-113 per year -0.04 32933
Very long-term No evidence to assess support
Increase education and training All measurement periods No evidence to assess support

Studies of this Intervention

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Study Quality Rating Study Counts per Rating
High High 3