Pathways provided job-readiness training, case management, transitional jobs, and subsidized internships to people recently released from prison to support participants in securing unsubsidized employment.

Pathways provided job-readiness training, case management, transitional jobs, and subsidized internships to people recently released from prison to support participants in securing unsubsidized employment.

Pathways began with one week of orientation activities, which included assessments of occupational skills and career interests. Participants then worked three days per week and spent the other weekdays participating in non-work activities provided by Pathways, such as job-readiness training, career-development workshops, and case management. Participants first worked in transitional jobs with street-cleaning crews or in kitchen of the implementing organization, the Doe Fund. Next, they worked at a subsidized internship with a partner employer earning slightly more than minimum wage. Participants who did not secure unsubsidized employment by the end of the internship participated in job search activities. Participants could access various job-readiness services, including computer training, financial literacy classes, and soft-skills training throughout their participation in the program. Participants received financial incentives, including $100 for securing an unsubsidized job and up to $1,000 if they were employed for 32 hours per week for five months. The program lasted for up to 26 weeks (one week of orientation, either six or eight weeks of transitional work, eight weeks of subsidized work, and up to nine weeks of job search assistance).

Pathways served people age 18 or older who were released from prison in the last 120 days, had been convicted of a crime as an adult (though not a sex offense), did not have certain degrees or certifications, did not use drugs, read at a fifth-grade reading level or higher, were physically able to work, spoke English, had not participated in a Doe Fund program in the past five years, did not receive more than $700 in Social Security benefits, and were not living in a shelter. Pathways took place in New York City, NY. The evaluation also tested similar subsidized employment interventions in Atlanta, GA (Good Transitions); Milwaukee, WI (Supporting Families Through Work); San Francisco, CA (TransitionsSF); Syracuse, NY (Parent Success Initiative); Indianapolis, IN (RecycleForce); and Fort Worth, TX (Next STEP).

Year evaluation began: 2011
Populations and employment barriers: Former incarceration
Intervention services: Case management, Financial incentives, Training, Financial education, Occupational or sectoral training, Soft skills training, Subsidized employment, Transitional jobs, Work readiness activities, Job search assistance
Setting(s): Urban only

Effectiveness Rating and Effect By Outcome Domain

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Outcome domain Term Effectiveness rating Effect in 2018 dollars and percentages Effect in standard deviations Sample size
Increase earnings Short-term Supported favorable $1,004 per year 0.05 1000
Long-term Little evidence to assess support favorable $2,113 per year 0.10 1005
Very long-term No evidence to assess support
Increase employment Short-term Supported favorable 9% (in percentage points) 0.21 1000
Long-term Little evidence to assess support favorable 2% (in percentage points) 0.05 1005
Very long-term No evidence to assess support
Decrease benefit receipt Short-term No evidence to assess support
Long-term Little evidence to assess support favorable $-404 per year -0.15 673
Very long-term No evidence to assess support
Increase education and training All measurement periods Supported favorable 9% (in percentage points) 0.17 724

Studies of this Intervention

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Study Quality Rating Study Counts per Rating
High High 1