The PASS program provided post-employment services and payment for supportive services to improve employment retention and career advancement among employed individuals who were recently Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) participants.

The PASS program provided post-employment services and payment for supportive services to improve employment retention and career advancement among employed individuals who were recently Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) participants.

Former TANF participants were contacted by PASS service providers, who provided customized post-employment services and supportive services payments based on clients’ needs to help participants keep their jobs and obtain better jobs. PASS service providers included staff at three community-based organizations, a community college, and a Department of Public Social Services office. PASS services included case management, counseling and mentoring, reemployment activities (such as assistance with job search and resume preparation), workshops on credit and money management, referrals to training and education opportunities, and referrals to social services programs. The program also included payments for supportive services such as child care, transportation, books, tools, and uniforms. PASS provided services for up to 12 months. In order to be eligible for PASS, former TANF participants had to be employed and ineligible for TANF in the current month but eligible in the previous month. PASS was implemented in Riverside, CA.

Year evaluation began: 2002
Populations and employment barriers: Employed, Parents
Intervention services: Case management, Employment retention services, Supportive services, Financial education, Work readiness activities, Job search assistance
Setting(s): Urban only

Effectiveness Rating and Effect By Outcome Domain

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Outcome domain Term Effectiveness rating Effect in 2018 dollars and percentages Effect in standard deviations Sample size
Increase earnings Short-term Supported favorable $2,029 per year 0.10 2770
Long-term Supported favorable $1,799 per year 0.09 3225
Very long-term No evidence to assess support
Increase employment Short-term Little evidence to assess support favorable 5% (in percentage points) 0.12 2770
Long-term Supported favorable 2% (in percentage points) 0.04 3225
Very long-term No evidence to assess support
Decrease benefit receipt Short-term Little evidence to assess support favorable $-50 per year -0.02 2770
Long-term Little evidence to assess support favorable $-72 per year -0.03 2770
Very long-term No evidence to assess support
Increase education and training All measurement periods No evidence to assess support

Studies of this Intervention

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Study Quality Rating Study Counts per Rating
High High 2