VIP Only changed the eligibility requirements for Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC)/Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) to encourage paternity establishment and economic self-sufficiency.

VIP Only changed the eligibility requirements for Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC)/Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) to encourage paternity establishment and economic self-sufficiency.

VIP Only provisions included the following: (1) one-time payments to families with a temporary loss of income if they agreed to forgo AFDC/TANF receipt for 160 days; (2) a “family cap” that excluded children born more than 10 months after a family began to receive AFDC/TANF from the family’s benefit calculation; (3) an exemption for the accumulation of savings up to $5,000 to support education, entrepreneurship, or the purchase of a home; (4) the application of one-parent eligibility criteria in determining benefits for two-parent families; and (5) requirements for paternity establishment cooperation, child school attendance, and immunization, and a requirement that minor parents live with a parent or other eligible adult. Participants could receive VIP as long as they received AFDC/TANF benefits. AFDC and TANF recipients were subject to the VIP Only provisions. VIP Only was implemented in Portsmouth and Wise County in Virginia. This evaluation also studied the impacts of VIP with Virginia Initiative for Employment not Welfare.

Year evaluation began: 1995
Populations and employment barriers: Cash assistance recipients
Intervention services: Financial incentives, Sanctions
Setting(s): Tested in multiple settings

Effectiveness Rating and Effect By Outcome Domain

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Outcome domain Term Effectiveness rating Effect in 2018 dollars and percentages Effect in standard deviations Sample size
Increase earnings Short-term Not supported $0 per year 0.00 4470
Long-term Not supported $0 per year 0.00 3458
Very long-term No evidence to assess support
Increase employment Short-term Supported favorable 2% (in percentage points) 0.05 4470
Long-term Not supported favorable 1% (in percentage points) 0.02 3458
Very long-term No evidence to assess support
Decrease benefit receipt Short-term Not supported unfavorable $28 per year 0.01 4470
Long-term Not supported $0 per year 0.00 3458
Very long-term No evidence to assess support
Increase education and training All measurement periods No evidence to assess support

Sample Characteristics

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State or region: Virginia

Participant race and ethnicity
Black or African American
62%
Unknown or not reported
38%

Studies of this Intervention

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Study Quality Rating Study Counts per Rating
High High 4